Students who participate in educational assessments and accountability systems come from a variety of backgrounds and have a variety of characteristics. A focus on certain groups of students has accompanied standards-based education approaches. Specifically, underrepresented students such as students from minority backgrounds and students from low-income families have been of interest to ensure that they are benefitting from their education.
Students with disabilities and English learners (ELs) also have been among the subgroups on which attention is focused. ELs with disabilities are a group of increasing interest.