Kamei-Hannan, C. (2008). Examining the accessibility of a computerized adapted test using assistive technology . Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness , 102 (5), 261–271. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145482X0810200502

Journal Article

Kamei-Hannan, C. (2008). Examining the accessibility of a computerized adapted test using assistive technology. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 102(5), 261–271. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145482X0810200502


Also located on organizational (American Foundation for the Blind) webpage https://www.afb.org/publications/jvib


Braille; Color contrast device or software; Electronic administration; Electronic administration; Electronic administration; Elementary; High school; K-12; Magnification device or software; Middle school; Screen display; Small group; U.S. context; Visual impairment (including blindness)





The accessibility features, and their limitations, were investigated on a computerized adapted test. The focus was how computer-based screen magnification compared to regular-sized font and refreshable braille versions, in terms of time needed to complete the test.


Participants, who were all students with visual impairments, numbered 75 in all, and ranged from ages 7 through 21. These student participants attended Arizona School for the Deaf and Blind (ASDB; U.S.). Seven students took the MAP tests without adaptations to the screen, and 13 used magnification software. Twenty-seven students took the reading test in braille and 28 students took the language test in braille.

Dependent Variable

The Measure of Academic Performance (MAP) computerized adapted test sections for language and reading were administered to provide a naturalistic experience for participants. However, scores were not reported or analyzed; rather, time elapsed for the use of the adaptive technology, and degree of screen magnification used, were tracked. Additionally, test proctors logged student-reported instances of inaccessible items.


"The results showed that as magnification increased, time on the test increased and students required visual efficiency skills" [from Abstract]. Limitations of the study were reported, and future research possibilities were suggested.