General Assessments of Academic Content Overview

K-12 students with disabilities, English learners (ELs), and ELs with disabilities participate in state assessment systems. Most of these students take the same general assessment that has been created for fluent English speaking students without disabilities, but some students with significant cognitive disabilities and ELs with significant cognitive disabilities take an alternate assessment.

Federal laws require that the general assessment measures student achievement of grade-level academic content standards in reading, mathematics, and science at specific grade levels. Scores show what students at a particular grade level are expected to know and how well schools are helping them learn the knowledge and skills contained in the standards.

 

Quick Links to the General Assessment Consortia:

Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC)

Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (Smarter Balanced) 

 

Related Publications

NCEO Data Analytics: State Assessment Participation and Performance of Students with IEPs 2013-2014 (#5)

Formats: Online

NCEO APR Snapshot Briefs: 2013-2014 APR Snapshot #11: Assessment Accommodations Use by Students Receiving Special Education Services (#11)

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CCSSO Accessibility Manual: How To Select, Administer, And Evaluate Use Of Accessibility Supports For Instruction And Assessment Of All Students

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Forum on Common Language for States and Assessment Vendors

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NCEO APR Snapshot Briefs: 2013-2014 APR Snapshot #10: State Assessment Participation and Performance of Students Receiving Special Education Services (#10)

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NCEO Reports: 2015-16 High School Assessment Accommodations Policies: An Analysis of ACT, SAT, PARCC, and Smarter Balanced (#403)

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NCEO Reports: A Summary of the Research on the Effects of Test Accommodations: 2013-2014 (#402)

Formats: Online , PDF

White Paper on Common Accessibility Language for States and Assessment Vendors

Formats: PDF

NCEO Reports: Principios y Características de Sistemas Inclusivos de Evaluación en un Escenario de Evaluación Cambiante (#400 Spanish)

Formats: Online , PDF

NCEO APR Snapshot Briefs: 2011-2012 APR Snapshot #8: Assessment Accommodations Use by Students Receiving Special Education Services (#8)

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Lessons Learned About Assessment from Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in College and Career Ready Assessments

Formats: PDF

NCEO Reports: 2013-14 Publicly Reported Assessment Results for Students with Disabilities and ELLs with Disabilities (#401)

Formats: Online , PDF

NCEO Reports: Principles and Characteristics of Inclusive Assessment Systems in a Changing Assessment Landscape (#400)

Formats: Online , PDF

Lessons Learned About Instruction from Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in College and Career Ready Assessments

Formats: PDF

Forum on Implementing Accessibility Frameworks for ALL Students

Formats: PDF

NCEO State Surveys: 2014 Survey of States: Initiatives, Trends, and Accomplishments

Formats: Online , PDF

NCEO Brief: Making Accessibility Decisions for ALL Students (#11)

Formats: Online , PDF

NCEO Technical Reports: 2012-13 Publicly Reported Assessment Results for Students with Disabilities and ELLs with Disabilities (#70)

Formats: Online , PDF

NCEO APR Snapshot Briefs: 2011-2012 APR Snapshot #7: State Assessment Participation and Performance of Students Receiving Special Education Services (#7)

Formats: Online

NCEO Brief: State Assessment Decision-Making Processes for ELLs with Disabilities (#9)

Formats: Online , PDF

Forum on Addressing Performance Gaps of Low-performing Students: Implications for Assessment and Instruction

Formats: PDF

NCEO State Surveys: 2012 Survey of States: Successes and Challenges During a Time of Change

Formats: Online , PDF

Assessment Principles and Guidelines for ELLs with Disabilities

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PARA Accessible Reading Assessment Reports: Studying Less-Accurately Measured Students

Formats: Online , PDF

NCEO Synthesis Reports: Science Assessments for Students with Disabilities in School Year 2006-2007: What We Know about Participation, Performance, and Accommodations (#77)

Formats: Online , PDF

NCEO Synthesis Reports: 2007 State Policies on Assessment Participation and Accommodations for Students with Disabilities (#69)

Formats: Online , PDF

PARA Accessible Reading Assessment Reports: Examining DIF, DDF, and Omit Rate by Discrete Disability Categories

Formats: Online , PDF

PARA Accessible Reading Assessment Reports: Examining Differential Distractor Functioning in Reading Assessments for Students with Disabilities

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NCEO State Surveys: 2005 State Special Education Outcomes - Steps Forward in a Decade of Change

Formats: Online , PDF

NCEO English Language Learners (ELLs) with Disabilities Reports: Policymaker Perspectives on the Inclusion of English Language Learners with Disabilities in Statewide Assessments (#8)

Formats: Online , PDF

NCEO Synthesis Reports: 2003 State Policies on Assessment Participation and Accommodations for Students with Disabilities (#56)

Formats: Online , PDF

NCEO Policy Directions: Rethinking Basic Assumptions of Test Development - Assessment Frameworks for Inclusive Accountability Tests (#17)

Formats: Online , PDF

NCEO Technical Reports: A Summary of Research on the Effects of Test Accommodations: 1999 through 2001 (#34)

Formats: Online , PDF

NCEO Synthesis Reports: 2001 State Policies on Assessment Participation and Accommodations (#46)

Formats: Online

NCEO Synthesis Reports: Access to Computer-Based Testing for Students with Disabilities (#45)

Formats: Online , PDF

NCEO Synthesis Reports: Empirical Support for Accommodations Most Often Allowed in State Policy (#41)

Formats: Online

NCEO State Surveys: 2001 State Special Education Outcomes - A Report on State Activities at the Beginning of a New Decade

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NCEO Synthesis Reports: Students with Disabilities in Standards-Based Assessment and Accountability Systems: Emerging Issues, Strategies, and Recommendations (#37)

Formats: Online

NCEO Technical Reports: Assessment Accommodations Research: Considerations for Design and Analysis (#26)

Formats: Online

NCEO Technical Reports: Effects of a Reading Accommodation on the Validity of a Reading Test (#28)

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NCEO Minnesota Assessment Project Reports: Participation and Performance of Limited English Proficient Students During Second Attempts on a Graduation Exam (#28)

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