Salend, S. (2009). Using technology to create and administer accessible tests . TEACHING Exceptional Children , 41 (3), 40–51.

Journal Article

Salend, S. (2009). Using technology to create and administer accessible tests. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 41(3), 40–51.


Audio description (of visual images); Braille; Color contrast device or software; Cueing; Dictated response; Dictated response (speech recognition system); Dictionary/glossary; Electronic administration; Electronic administration; Electronic administration; Format; Grammar checker; Magnification device or software; Multiple accommodations; Oral delivery; Oral delivery of directions only; Physical supports; Screen display; Signed administration; Signed response; Spelling checker; Technological aid; Text-to-speech device/software; U.S. context; Visual cues; Word processing (for writing)




The accommodations discussed in this literature review and expository report on technology-based tests were numerous, including text reading with visual cueing; text scanning and optical character reading; built-in dictionary and thesaurus; spell-checking and grammar-checking; including or excluding images, animation, and backgrounds; varying print, font, spacing, color, and layout; enlarging font and magnifying or contrasting screens; audio-describing visual images; sound field amplification and frequency modulation; closed-captioning; sign-based and pictorially-based formats; converting text to sign language with or without digitized voice; adapted switches, joysticks, and sip-and-puff systems; enlarged or alternative keyboards and key settings; touch screens and highlighted mouse; voice-recognition systems; augmentative communication systems; braille writers; digital recorders; and word-processing, including talk-type and abbreviation expanders; among others.


The participants in this literature review were not reported for each of the research articles reviewed. The technology resources described by the researchers were U.S. educational products and tools.

Dependent Variable

The dependent variables in this literature review included various types of achievement testing in various content areas, and included multiple response formats.


The results of this literature review and expository report yielded detailed descriptions of numerous accommodations, as well as guidance on principles of universal design, lists of exemplary resources, and categorization of many aspects of test design and administration. Additional issues such as student motivation and preparation, teacher preparation, and high-tech cheating were discussed, as well as guidance in evaluating technology were presented.