Hollenbeck, K. (2005). Validity issues and decisions about testing accommodations . Assessment for Effective Intervention , 31 (1), 7–17. https://doi.org/10.1177/073724770503100102

Journal Article

Hollenbeck, K. (2005). Validity issues and decisions about testing accommodations. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 31(1), 7–17. https://doi.org/10.1177/073724770503100102



Dictated response; Dictated response (scribe); Electronic administration; Electronic administration; Electronic administration; Enlarged print (on paper); Examiner familiarity; Extended time; Mark answer in test booklet; Multiple accommodations; Multiple day; Oral delivery; Simplified language; U.S. context; Word processing (for writing)





This review of literature presented findings regarding supports provided in the categories of presentation, response, and environmental or setting. These supports include accommodations and modifications. Accommodations reviewed were categorized as follows: Presentation—enlarged font size, extended-time, multiple-day, read-aloud, simplified language, student-paced (versus teacher-paced) computerized administration. Setting—background noise and examiner familiarity. Response—answering in test booklets (rather than on answer sheets), dictating answers to a scribe, and word-processing essays.


This review of the literature did not specify participant numbers and other demographic data. The relevant studies appear to have been completed within the U.S. educational system.

Dependent Variable

This review of the literature summarized findings across various tests of various subjects and various grade levels. Effect sizes were not specified.


The researcher indicated that accommodations supported by research literature were: dictated response (to a scribe), examiner familiarity, enlarged font, extended-time, multiple-day, read-aloud, student-determined pacing, and word-processing on constructed response items. The researcher indicated that accommodations supported by little or no research were: computerized administration, controlling background noise, marking answers in test booklets, and simplified language. Further, the researcher clarified the specific applications of accommodations in conditions, and their limitations.
In addition to summarizing findings on the impact of accommodations use during assessments, the researcher presented a model of decision-making, discussed the considerations of professional experience and student perspectives, and addressed the issue of academic construct validity.