Cawthon, S. W. (2011). Making decisions about assessment practices for students who are deaf or hard of hearing . Remedial and Special Education , 32 (1), 4–21.

Journal Article

Cawthon, S. W. (2011). Making decisions about assessment practices for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. Remedial and Special Education, 32(1), 4–21.


Educator survey; Extended time; Hearing impairment (including deafness); K-12; Multiple accommodations; Signed administration; Signed response; U.S. context



Possible accommodations included in vignettes were: extended time, test directions interpreted, test items interpreted, student signs response to a scribe, and other (with a blank for the participant to write in an accommodation).


Participants were teachers and other education professionals who worked with students who are deaf or hard of hearing (SDHH) across the nation (U.S.) in a range of settings, including state schools for the deaf, regional programs, and general education district schools.

Dependent Variable

Participants responded to three vignettes to indicate how they would assign accommodations to students based on their individual needs. Options were given for several accommodations, and space was given for teachers to write a justification of their choices. Reliability measures were obtained by contacting 81 participants to make accommodations recommendations on the same vignettes a second time, 3 months after the first round of data collection.


Findings revealed that the most common accommodations recommended were test directions interpreted, extra time, and test items interpreted. Findings also revealed that recommendations for accommodations differed by subject (math vs. reading) and by student proficiency (high skill level vs. low skill level), but communication mode (ASL vs. Total Communication) was not a significant factor in choosing accommodations. Limitations of the study were reported, and future research directions were suggested.