Zebehazy, K. T., Zigmond, N., & Zimmerman, G. J. (2012). Performance measurement and accommodation: Students with visual impairments on Pennsylvania’s alternate assessment . Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness , 106 (1), 17–30. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145482X1210600103

Journal Article

Zebehazy, K. T., Zigmond, N., & Zimmerman, G. J. (2012). Performance measurement and accommodation: Students with visual impairments on Pennsylvania’s alternate assessment. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 106(1), 17–30. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145482X1210600103

Tags

Color contrast device or software; Dictated response; Elementary; Intellectual disabilities; Math; Middle school; Multiple accommodations; Multiple content; Reading; Simplified language; U.S. context; Visual cues; Visual impairment (including blindness)

URL

https://www.afb.org/publications/jvib

Summary

Accommodation

Accommodations used by students during test administration were coded by reviewers who viewed videotapes of testing sessions. Accommodations used included: substitutions (objects for pictures), picture or object enhancement (adding color), layout or setup (defined space), instructions or directions (alternate wording), and response (eye-gaze response)—where students communicated test responses via an augmentative or alternative communication system.

Participants

Participants were 286 students (143 each from grades 3 and 8) who took the statewide test in Pennsylvania (U.S.). Data from 257 of these students were used to analyze accommodations.

Dependent Variable

The dependent variable was scores on the spring 2005 administration of the Level A Pennsylvania Alternate System of Assessment (PASA) in reading and math.

Findings

Non-parametric data analysis techniques (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U) were used. Students with more functional vision performed better overall than students using vision for some or no tasks. Students using more vision to complete tasks also received fewer accommodations, though students with less vision sometimes did not receive accommodations as well, which may present a problem of accessibility and availability of accommodations. The authors note that questions about accommodation use in the classroom still need to be addressed. Limitations of the study were reported, and future research directions were suggested.