Shinn, E., & Ofiesh, N. (2012). Cognitive diversity and the design of classroom tests for all learners . Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability , 25 (3), 227–245. https://www.ahead.org/professional-resources/publications/jped
[no doi reported]; also located on ERIC online database at https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ994288
Many accommodations and assessment design considerations were discussed in this review of literature, framed in terms of three central cognitive concerns for students in postsecondary education: access demands, such as visual-spatial thinking and language comprehension; test output demands, such as processing speed and visual-motor integration; and access and output in combination, such as working memory and attention.
Not applicable for this literature review; however, the authors included cognitive diversity that was disability related: postsecondary students participating in the studies included those with attentional problems, learning disabilities, speech-language impairments, emotional-behavioral disabilities, and sensory impairments. Other areas associated with cognitive diversity such as poverty and non-English native languages were minimized in this summary. The researchers further indicated that the focus was on the U.S. educational system.
Not applicable for this literature review; in general, researchers addressed course-related examinations.
Fitting with the cognitive issues being reviewed, the researchers described both universal design and accommodations solutions, including for access demands, font size, text-to-speech software, and other presentation and appearance-based aspects; and for output demands, extended-time, word-processing and keyboard composition via computer access, and dictation software. The researchers presented a model for training university instructors to implement universal design and accommodations. Future research directions were suggested.