Cawthon, S. W., & Wurtz, K. A. (2010). Predictors of assessment accommodations use for students who are deaf or hard-of-hearing . The Journal of Educational Research and Policy Studies , 10 (1), 17–34. https://www.academia.edu/615228/Journal_of_Educational_Research_and_Policy_Studies
[no doi reported]; Also downloadable from ERIC online database: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ930163
The use of the extended time, test directions interpreted, test items interpreted, and items read aloud accommodations for students who were deaf or hard of hearing was examined.
Data from the 2nd National Survey of Assessments and Accommodations for Students who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (National Survey) were examined. A total of 414 teachers and district administrators responded to the survey, all of whom were from inclusive educational settings, schools for the deaf or hard of hearing, or district/regional programs.
Participants responded to a survey on the types of accommodations used in 2004–2005 state standardized assessments. Participants indicated whether at least one of their students received each of the four accommodations (extended time, test directions interpreted, test items interpreted, and items read aloud) for math, reading, or neither.
Teacher perspectives and student characteristics were predictive factors for assessment use. Teachers were more likely to use accommodations if they found them easy to use and if they believed the accommodations led to valid test scores. State policy predicted accommodation use only for the test items interpreted accommodation. Teachers were more likely to use this accommodation when accommodation permission was outlined in their state policy. Increased accommodation use was associated with having a large proportion of students with severe to profound hearing loss in class and with additional disabilities present. Educational setting did not have a significant effect on assessment use.