Espin, C. A., & Sindelar, P. T. (1988). Auditory feedback and writing: Learning disabled and nondisabled students . Exceptional Children , 55 (1), 45–51. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440298805500105
Espin, C. A., & Sindelar, P. T. (1988). Auditory feedback and writing: Learning disabled and nondisabled students. Exceptional Children, 55(1), 45–51. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440298805500105
There were two methods for presenting passages and sentences: listening to recorded passages and sentences, reading passages and sentences. Passages and sentences that students listened to and read contained a variety of errors.
Students were from grades 6 through 8 (age 10 to 14-7) and included equal numbers of boys and girls: 30 students with learning disabilities, 30 same age students without disabilities (CA), 30 same age students with low reading skills (RDG).
Number and percent of errors identified as well as number of correct items identified as incorrect were the independent variables. Passages were taken from the Specific Skills Reading Series, Getting the Facts (Boning, 1963), and the Test of Written Language (TOWL; Hammill & Larsen, 1983)
Students listening to the taped passages and sentences identified more errors than students reading the passages and sentences. CA> LD or RDG (effects size = .33). Students with learning disabilities identified fewer errors than students in general education. No differences were found in percent correct among the student groups for passages or sentences.