Hollenbeck, K., Tindal, G., Harniss, M., & Almond, P. (1999). The effect of using computers as an accommodation in a statewide writing test . University of Oregon Research Consultation, and Teaching Program.
Hollenbeck, K., Tindal, G., Harniss, M., & Almond, P. (1999). The effect of using computers as an accommodation in a statewide writing test. University of Oregon Research Consultation, and Teaching Program.
Classrooms of students were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: 1) take the writing test using traditional methods, 2) use the computer to complete the entire three-day test, 3) handwrite for two days, use computer one day (computer-last-day group), 4) handwrite for two days, use computer with spell-checker one day (computer-last-day-with-spell-checker) group.
A total of 164 students in grade 7 (120 in general education, and 44 receiving special education) from an urban area in the Pacific Northwest (U.S.) participated. Additional demographics, including race/ethnicity, were reported.
Scores on statewide writing tests were determined. Writing was rated according to ideas/content, organization, voice, word choice, sentence fluency, and conventions.
Differences between handwritten students' essays and computer-generated essays were non-significant. Significant differences were found between ratings for essays of computer-last day group and computer last day with spell-check group. Students with disabilities performed significantly poorer when composing with a computer than when handwriting their stories.