Bielinski, J., Thurlow, M., Ysseldyke, J., Freidebach, J., & Freidebach, M. (2001). Read-aloud accommodations: Effects on multiple-choice reading and math items (Technical Report No. 31). University of Minnesota, National Center on Educational Outcomes. https://nceo.info/Resources/publications/OnlinePubs/Technical31.htm
One group of students with disabilities received the read-aloud accommodation. A majority of the students receiving the read-aloud accommodation also received this accommodation with extended-time and in a small group.
This study used data from the 1998 administration of the Missouri (U.S.) Assessment Program. Test data gathered from four groups of students (grades 3 and 4 were analyzed): Group A: A random sample of 1,000 general education students who took the test without an accommodation; Group B: Students with an individualized education program (IEP) in reading who took the test without an accommodation; Group C: Students who had an IEP in reading and took the test under the read-aloud accommodation alone or in combination with extended time and/or small group administration; Group D: A random sample of 1,000 general education students who took the test without an accommodation and who were matched in ability to the group of students with an IEP in reading.
The Missouri Assessment Program (MAP) grade 3 reading test and grade 4 math test were used as the dependent variables.
Results indicated that the presence of the accommodation altered item difficulty estimation beyond the effect of the conditions controlled for (effect for ability and effect for disability status). About half of the items on the reading test were identified as having differential item functioning (DIF) when the read-aloud accommodation was used, and about 1/5 of the items on the math test were identified as having DIF when the accommodation was used.