Horton, S. (1985). A study of the efficacy of teaching educable mentally retarded adolescents to solve subtraction problems with pencil and paper and calculators under several treatment conditions (Publication No. 8508059) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Washington]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. https://www.proquest.com/docview/303314676
University of Washington (Seattle, WA); ProQuest document ID: 303314676
Students were taught to solve math problems through three different methods: 1) paper and pencil, 2) calculators, 3) calculators employing a rehearsal strategy using problems containing visual cues.
Seven White students, 5 girls and 2 boys, with intellectual disabilities (formerly termed "Educable Mentally Handicapped"/"EMH") participated. The participants were enrolled in a self-contained class in a junior high school. In addition to the special education students, 44 general education students were included in the study in order to obtain pre-experimental comparison levels of computational performance with paper and pencil and calculator administrations.
Students completed subtraction problem sheets, consisting of approximately 20 four-column subtraction problems, after each of the four instructional phases were completed.
Significant differences in performance favoring calculators over paper-and-pencil were found for each student with intellectual disabilities. Rehearsal and visual cues significantly influenced correct performance for only one student with intellectual disabilities. Maintenance of correct performance with calculators over time was excellent for each student. Without calculators, the students with intellectual disabilities scored lower than their general education peers; however, with calculators their performances were fairly comparable. [See also Horton, Lovitt, & White (1992).]