Kappel, A. T. (2002). The effects of testing accommodations on subtypes of students with learning disabilities (Publication No. 3054293) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. https://www.proquest.com/docview/305520451
University of Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh, PA); ProQuest document ID: 305520451
This study investigated the effects of two testing accommodations provided separately, extended-time and oral delivery by administrator (read-aloud), on the math test performance of students with learning disabilities.
A total of 47 grade 5 students from several schools in an urban school district in an unidentified location (U.S.) participated. Participants were 12 students without disabilities and 35 students with learning disabilities (LD). The participants with learning disabilities were screened with the Wide Range Achievement Test Revision 3 (WRAT) Blue form, which measured reading, spelling, and mathematics basic skills. The subtypes of their learning disabilities were identified. Group A, termed "nonverbal," had tactile and visual perception deficits affecting complex psychomotor skills and resulting in difficulties with novel material; and strengths in auditory and verbal memory as well as simple motor skills and managing rote material. Group RS had auditory and verbal memory deficits; and tactile and visual memory strengths as well as concept formation and problem-solving abilities. An additional participant group were students with LD who were not in either subtype.
Scores on the California Achievement Test (CAT) subset of selected response (multiple-choice) mathematics items served as the dependent variable. The CAT complete battery is a criterion-referenced test, and its math section measures computation and concepts and applications; a subset of items for each of these areas was used in the study.
When all participants used the read-aloud accommodation, they scored no differently than without the accommodations. However, students with LD improved total test scores, and specifically the concepts and applications items, when using extended-time. An exception to this pattern was that extended-time did not benefit students with nonverbal LD. Limitations of the study were reported, and future research possibilities were suggested.