Wolf, J. (2007). The effects of testing accommodations usage on students’ standardized test scores for deaf and hard-of-hearing students in Arizona public schools (Publication No. 3268570) [Doctoral dissertation, The University of Arizona]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. https://www.proquest.com/docview/304894200
The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ); ProQuest document ID: 304894200
The purposes of this study were to: (a) document the use of testing accommodations by students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH), (b) identify the types and frequency of testing accommodations required by D/HH students attending general education classes in Arizona public schools, and (c) to analyze the relationships between type and degree of hearing loss and Stanford 9 achievement for students who are D/HH in Arizona public schools. Various combinations of 10 accommodations used by student participants were reported as part of the findings.
Participants had varying degrees of hearing loss, and received instruction from teachers of deaf/hard of hearing students and other support personnel, from across general education grade levels (grade 3 through grade 12) in Arizona (U.S.). The participants included 62 students in the first year of the study, and 53 students in the second year.
The dependent variable was the Stanford Achievement Test, Ninth Edition (Stanford 9) test Total Reading and Total Language subtests in the state of Arizona.
Ten (10) accommodations—extended time, signed directions, oral delivery of directions, repeat directions, simplify language in directions, teacher clarification, administer over several shorter sessions, frequent breaks, prompts or directions on tape, and mark answers in test book—were combined into sets of accommodations. Extended-time was the most frequently required accommodation. Principal components analysis resulted in clustering of accommodations variables into three components in 2002: Time and Administration, Presentation, and Student Directed, and four components in 2003: Presentation and Administration, Time and Materials, Response, and Student Directed. The accommodations used and their clustering were similar to those reported in the literature. Type of hearing loss was found to significantly affect reading achievement even when controlling for testing accommodations. The interaction between type and degree of loss significantly affected language achievement. Results demonstrated the reading and language achievement performance of students with mild and high frequency hearing loss fell behind students having greater levels of hearing loss. The use of testing accommodations resulted in mixed effects on student reading and language achievement performance. Changes in language scores, but not in reading scores, were found. Limitations of the study were reported, and future research possibilities were suggested.